Coronavirus and COVID-19

Research Work


Antibodies Post-SARS-CoV-2 Infection – New Insights into the Sensitivity and Detection Duration of Antibody Tests
Antibodies from COVID-19-Vaccinated Individuals Recognise Different Spike Protein Structures than Antibodies from SARS-CoV-2-Infected Individuals
Antibody Formation after Vaccination with Different mRNA Vaccines and after COVID-19 Infection
Heterogeneous Design of Studies Hampers Demonstration of Potential Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma as a COVID-19 Therapeutic Agent
Innate Immune System is Barely the Driver of Excessive Immune Reactions in COVID-19
New Vaccine Platform: 'Two-one replicon-and-VLP-minispike Vaccine' against COVID-19
Measure What Fuses – Tissue Damage through Cell Fusion in COVID-19 and the Role of the Spike Protein
COVID-19 Therapy with Convalescent Plasma – Tests for the Identification of Suitable Donor Plasma
Measles Virus Vaccination-based-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine induces Immune Response in Mice and Hamsters
COVID-19: How is Severity of the Disease Related to Antibody Response?
More Flexible than Expected - New Findings on the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2
3D Mapping of Viruses by Electron Microscopy
SARS-CoV-2 Immunogenity at the Crossroads


Please note: Authors from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut are highlighted in bold. For online abstracts or full text publications, please follow the links.

Berg P, Heiden M, Müller S, Oberle D, Funk M, Keller-Stanislawski B (2020): SARS-CoV-2-Infektionen und Sicherheit von Blut und Blutkomponenten.
Bulletin zur Arzneimittelsicherheit 11: 17-19.

Börger V, Weiss DJ, Anderson JD, Borràs FE, Bussolati B, Carter DRF, Dominici M, Falcón-Pérez JM, Gimona M, Hill AF, Hoffman AM, de Kleijn D, Levine BL, Lim R, Lötvall J, Mitsialis A, Monguió-Tortajada M, Muraca M, Nieuwland R, Nowocin A, O'Driscoll L, Ortiz LA, Phinney DG, Reischl I, Rohde E, Sanzenbacher R, Théry C, Wei ST, Witwer KW, Lim SK, Giebel B (2020): ISEV and ISCT Statement on EVs From MSCs and Other Cells: Considerations for Potential Therapeutic Agents to Suppress COVID-19.
Cytotherapy 22: 482-485.

Corman VM, Rabenau HF, Adams O, Oberle D, Funk MB, Keller-Stanislawski B, Timm J, Drosten C, Ciesek S (2020): SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and risk for transfusion transmission.
Transfusion 60: 1119-1122.

Görgülü E, Gu W, Trebicka J, Mücke VT, Mücke MM, Friedrich-Rust M, Bojunga J, Zeuzem S, Finkelmeier F, Peiffer KH (2022): Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) precipitated by severe alcoholic hepatitis: another collateral damage of the COVID-19 pandemic?.
Gut 71: 1036-1038.

Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S (2021): Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccination.
N Engl J Med 384: 2092-2101.

Gürtler L, Seitz R, Schramm W (2021): Cerebral venous thrombosis after COVID-19 vaccination: is the risk of thrombosis increased by intravascular application of the vaccine?.
Infection Jul 21 [Epub ahead of print].

Hastert FD, Henss L, von Rhein C, Gerbeth J, Wieters I, Borgans F, Khodamoradi Y, Zacharowski K, Rohde G, Vehreschild MJGT, Schnierle B (2022): Longitudinal Analysis of Coronavirus-Neutralizing Activity in COVID-19 Patients.
Viruses Apr 23 [Epub ahead of print].

Hein S, Benz NI, Eisert J, Herrlein ML, Oberle D, Dreher M, Stingl JC, Hildt C, Hildt E (2021): Comirnaty-Elicited and Convalescent Sera Recognize Different Spike Epitopes.
Vaccines 9: 1419.

Hein S, Herrlein ML, Mhedhbi I, Bender D, Haberger V, Benz N, Eisert J, Stingl J, Dreher M, Oberle D, Schulze J, Mache C, Budt M, Hildt C, Wolff T, Hildt E (2021): Analysis of BNT162b2- and CVnCoV-elicited sera and of convalescent sera towards SARS-CoV-2 viruses.
Allergy Nov 25 [Epub ahead of print].

Hennrich AA, Sawatsky B, Santos-Mandujano R, Banda DH, Oberhuber M, Schopf A, Pfaffinger V, Wittwer K, Riedel C, Pfaller CK, Conzelmann K (2021): Safe and effective two-in-one replicon-and-VLP minispike vaccine for COVID-19: Protection of mice after a single immunization.
PLOS Pathog 17: e1009064.

Henss L, Scholz T, von Rhein C, Wieters I, Borgans F, Eberhardt FJ, Zacharowski K, Ciesek S, Rohde G, Vehreschild M, Stephan C, Wolf T, Hofmann-Winkler H, Scheiblauer H, Schnierle BS (2020): Analysis of humoral immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
J Infect Dis 223: 56-61.

Henss L, Auste A, Schürmann C, Schmidt C, von Rhein C, Mühlebach MD, Schnierle BS (2021): The green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection.
J Gen Virol 102: 001574.

Herrlein ML, Hein S, Zahn T, Mhedhbi I, Raupach J, Husria Y, Benz NI, Eisert J, Bender D, Haberger V, Hastert FD, Henss L, Schnierle BS, Stingl JC, Dreher M, Hildt E (2022): Comparative Investigation of Methods for Analysis of SARS-CoV-2-Spike-Specific Antisera.
Viruses 14: 410.

Hörner C, Schürmann C, Auste A, Ebenig A, Muraleedharan S, Dinnon KH, Scholz T, Herrmann M, Schnierle B, Baric RS, Mühlebach MD (2020): A Highly Immunogenic Measles Virus-based Th1-biased COVID-19 Vaccine.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117: 32657-32666.

Jutel M, Torres MJ, Palomares O, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T, Untersmayr E, Barber D, Zemelka-Wiacek M, Kosowska A, Palmer E, Vieths S, Mahler V, Canonica GW, Nadeau K, Shamji MH, Agache I, EAACI Research and Outreach Committee Group (2022): COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or biologicals - EAACI recommendations.
Allergy Feb 11 [Epub ahead of print].

Karamloo F, König R (2020): SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity at the crossroads.
Allergy 75: 1822-1824.

Kochhar S, Excler JL, Kim D, Robertson JS, Fast PE, Condit RC, Drew S, Wood D, Gurwith M, Klug B, Whelan M, Khuri-Bulos N, Mallett Moore T, Smith ER, Chen RT, Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) (2020): The Brighton Collaboration standardized template for collection of key information for benefit-risk assessment of inactivated viral vaccines.
Vaccine 38: 6184-6189.

Kochhar S, Kim D, Excler JL, Condit RC, Robertson JS, Drew S, Whelan M, Wood D, Fast PE, Gurwith M, Klug B, Khuri-Bulos N, Smith ER, Chen RT, Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) (2020): The Brighton Collaboration standardized template for collection of key information for benefit-risk assessment of protein vaccines.
Vaccine 38: 5734-5739.

Lasch F, Guizzaro L, Aguirre Dávila L, Müller-Vahl K, Koch A (2021): Potential impact of COVID-19 on ongoing clinical trials: a simulation study with the neurological Yale Global Tic Severity Scale based on the CANNA-TICS study.
Pharm Stat 20: 675-691.

Liu M, Zhou T, Sheets R, Meyer H, Knezevic I (2022): WHO informal consultation on regulatory considerations for evaluation of the quality, safety and efficacy of RNA-based prophylactic vaccines for infectious diseases, 20-22 April 2021.
Emerg Microbes Infect 11: 384-391.

Mentzer D, Keller-Stanislawski B (2022): Verdachtsfälle von Nebenwirkungen und Impfkomplikationen nach Impfung mit Comirnaty® bei Kindern im Alter von 5–11 Jahren aus Deutschland: Meldungen an das Paul-Ehrlich-Institut bis zum 03.03.2022.
Bulletin zur Arzneimittelsicherheit 13: 15-21.

Meyer H (2021): COVID-19-Impfstoffe – Übersicht über in Europa zugelassene oder im Zulassungsprozess befindliche Impfstofftypen.
Bulletin zur Arzneimittelsicherheit 12: 20-22.

Niles MA, Gogesch P, Kronhart S, Ortega Iannazzo S, Kochs G, Waibler Z, Anzaghe M (2021): Macrophages and dendritic cells are not the major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Front Immunol 12: 647824.

Oberle D, Mentzer D, Weber G (2020): Befragung zur Verträglichkeit der Impfstoffe gegen das neue Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mittels Smartphone-App SafeVac 2.0.
Bulletin zur Arzneimittelsicherheit 11: 27-31.

Pfaar O, Mahler V (2021): Allergic reactions to COVID-19 -vaccinations - unveiling the secret(s).
Allergy 76: 1621-1623.

Puyskens A, Krause E, Michel J, Nübling CM, Scheiblauer H, Bourquain D, Grossegesse M, Valusenko R, Corman VM, Drosten C, Zwirglmaier K, Wölfel R, Lange C, Kramer J, Friesen J, Ignatius R, Müller M, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Emmerich P, Schaade L, Nitsche A (2021): Establishment of a specimen panel for the decentralised technical evaluation of the sensitivity of 31 rapid diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 antigen, Germany, September 2020 to April 2021.
Euro Surveill 26: 2100442.

Richter E, Al Arashi D, Schulte B, Bode C, Marx B, Aldabbagh S, Schlüter C, Kümmerer BM, Oldenburg J, Funk MB, Putensen C, Schmithausen RM, Hartmann G, Eis-Hübinger A, Streeck H (2021): Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in Critically Ill Patients, but Not in Mild and Asymptomatic Infections.
Transfus Med Hemother 48: 154-159.

Sampath V, Rabinowitz G, Shah M, Jain S, Diamant Z, Jesenak M, Rabin R, Jesenak M, Vieths S, Agache I, Akdis M, Barber D, Breiteneder H, Chinthrajah S, Chivato T, Collins W, Eiwegger T, Fast K, Fokkens W, O'Hehir RE, Ollert M, O'Mahony L, Palomares O, Pfaar O, Riggioni C, Shamji MH, Sokolowska M, Jose Torres M, Traidl-Hoffmann C, van Zelm M, Wang Y, Zhang L (2021): Vaccines and allergic reactions: The past, the current COVID-19 pandemic, and future perspectives.
Allergy 76: 1640-1660.

Scheiblauer H, Filomena A, Nitsche A, Puyskens A, Corman VM, Drosten C, Zwirglmaier K, Lange C, Emmerich P, Müller M, Knauer O, Nübling CM (2021): Comparative sensitivity evaluation for 122 CE-marked rapid diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 antigen, Germany, September 2020 to April 2021.
Euro Surveill 26: 2100441.

Scheiblauer H, Nübling CM, Wolf T, Khodamoradi Y, Bellinghausen C, Sonntagbauer M, Esser-Nobis K, Filomena A, Mahler V, Maier TJ, Stephan C (2022): Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 for more than one year − kinetics and persistence of detection are predominantly determined by avidity progression and test design.
J Clin Virol 146: 105052.

Schramm W, Seitz R, Gürtler L (2020): COVID-19-associated coagulopathy - Hypothesis: Are Children protected due to enhanced thrombin inhibition by higher α2 -Macroglobulin (α2-M)?.
J Thromb Haemost 18: 2416-2418.

Seitz R, Gürtler L, Schramm W (2021): COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma: No Definite Answer Yet.
J Blood Lymph 11: 265.

Seitz R, Gürtler L, Schramm W (2021): Thromboinflammation in COVID-19: Can α2-Macroglobulin Help to Control the Fire?.
J Thromb Haemost 19: 351-354.

Seitz R, Schramm W (2020): DIC in COVID-19: Implications for Prognosis and Treatment?.
J Thromb Haemost 18: 1798-1799.

Sokolowska M, Eiwegger T, Ollert M, Torres MJ, Barber D, Del Giacco S, Jutel M, Nadeau KC, Palomares O, Rabin RL, Riggioni C, Vieths S, Agache T, Shamji MH (2021): EAACI statement on the diagnosis, management and prevention of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines.
Allergy 76: 1629-1639.

Srivastav S, Dankov A, Adanalic M, Grzeschik R, Tran V, Pagel-Wieder S, Gessler F, Spreitzer I, Scholz T, Schnierle B, Anastasiou OE, Dittmer U, Schlücker S (2021): Rapid and Sensitive SERS-Based Lateral Flow Test for SARS-CoV2-Specific IgM/IgG Antibodies.
Anal Chem 93: 12391-12399.

Theuerkauf SA, Michels A, Riechert V, Maier TJ, Flory E, Cichutek K, Buchholz CJ (2021): Quantitative Assays Reveal Cell Fusion at Minimal Levels of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Fusion-from-Without.
iScience 24: 102170.

Thiele T, Weisser K, Schönborn L, Funk MB, Weber G, Greinacher A, Keller-Stanislawski K (2022): Laboratory confirmed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia: Retrospective analysis of reported cases after vaccination with ChAdOx-1 nCoV-19 in Germany.
Lancet Reg Health Eur 12: 100270.

Turonova B, Sikora M, Schürmann C, Hagen WJH, Welsch S, Blanc FEC, Bülow von S, Gecht M, Bagola K, Hörner C, van Zandbergen G, Mosalaganti S, Schwarz A, Covino R, Mühlebach MD, Hummer G, Krijnse Locker J, Beck M (2020): In situ structural analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals flexibility mediated by three hinges.
Science 370: 203-208.

Müller-Olling M, Vahlensieck U, Hilger A (2021): Heterogeneity in COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma Clinical Trials.
Clin Pharmacol Ther Jun 17 [Epub ahead of print].

von Rhein C, Scholz T, Henss L, Kronstein-Wiedemann R, Schwarz T, Rodionov RN, Corman VM, Tonn T, Schnierle BS (2021): Comparison of potency assays to assess SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody capacity in COVID-19 convalescent plasma.
J Virol Methods 288: 114031.

Wagner R, Hildt E, Grabski E, Sun Y, Meyer H, Lommel A, Keller-Stanislawski B, Müller-Berghaus J, Cichutek K (2021): Accelerated Development of COVID-19 Vaccines: Technology Platforms, Benefits, and Associated Risks.
Vaccines (Basel) 9: 747.

Wagner R, Meißner J, Grabski E, Sun Y, Vieths S, Hildt E (2021): Regulatory concepts to guide and promote the accelerated but safe clinical development and licensure of COVID-19 vaccines in Europe.
Allergy Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print].

Weisser K, Kling K, Huth C, Keller-Stanislawski B, Mahler V (2021): Was ist bei positiver Allergieanamnese vor einer Impfung gegen COVID-19 zu beachten?.
Bulletin zur Arzneimittelsicherheit 12: 23-26.

Zahn T, Mhedhbi I, Hein S, Raupach J, Miskey C, Husria Y, Bayanga K, Bartel D, Vieths S, Ivics Z, Oberle D, Keller-Stanislawski K, Herrlein ML, Maier TJ, Hildt E (2021): Persistence of infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles for up to 37 days in patients with mild COVID-19.
Allergy Oct 12 [Epub ahead of print].


  1. Role of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut
  2. COVID-19 Vaccines
  3. Proof of vaccination within the meaning of the Infection Protection Act (IfSG)
  4. FAQ Coronavirus
  5. Biomedicines
  6. Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines
  7. Research Work
  8. SARS-CoV-2 Test Systems